PubMed Lake and Reservoir Management: Vol. Ecol Indic. Arai H, Fukushima T. Impacts of long-term increase in silicon concentration on diatom blooms in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. Previous studies mainly focused on species composition and richness of planktonic algae, and their responses to pollutions, disturbance, as well as physic-chemical factors in large rivers [18,19,20,21,22]. Tantanasarit C, Englande AJ, Babel S. Nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon uptake kinetics by marine diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans under high nutrient concentrations. Sea. The planktonic larval stage is particularly crucial to many benthic invertebrate in order to disperse their young. of or relating to or happening on the bottom under a body of water. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. Ecol Indic. Science. The LEfSe biomarker detection was performed in QIIME  using the logarithmic LDA threshold > 4 and the statistical parameters of P < 0.05. CAS Wavelength-dependent induction of thymine dimers and growth rate reduction in the marine diatom Cyclotella sp. For the Yangtze River, one of the most prominent impacts on its ecology arises from the construction and operation of large dams. Science. In view of their relative abundance, planktonic diatoms were characterized by Psammothidium, Nitzschia, and Cymbella for steep slope environments, Papiliocellulus for moderate slope, Mayamaea, Pinnularia, and Surirella for mild slope environments. PubMed Central Report reviewed by: Approved for release by: Stephanie Thompson Coastal Scientist Coastal & Estuarine Group Dr Barry Robertson Manager Coastal & Estuarine Group . 2009;636:137–51. Figure S9. UCHIME was used to remove chimeric sequences and UPARSE was used to cluster operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% similarity cutoff . We've never seen one alive. Sci Total Environ. 2019;665:171–80. The local interactions could cause benthic and planktonic habitats to become coupled through migration of algal cells, meaning that phytoplankton can be derived from benthic diatoms, and sinking planktonic algae can become benthic algae .  provided a new estimate of diversity and distribution of marine planktonic diatoms based on the V9 region of eukaryotic 18S rDNA. The alpha-diversity of planktonic diatoms could be partly interpreted in terms of annual-averaged dissolved TN:TP (data range from 2005 to 2014) in water-spring (Adj R2 = 0.54) and water-autumn (Adj R2 = 0.41) samples (Additional file 1: Figure S14a-b); however, benthic diatoms demonstrated an even weaker response to TN:TP (monitored data) (Additional file 1: Figure S14c-d). By using this website, you agree to our Despite their ecological significance, little is known about their seasonal co-occurrence patterns and the ecological processes that drive them. Visco JA, Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil L, Cordonier A, Esling P, Pillet L, Pawlowski J. Third, the weak relationship between annual-averaged TN:TP and alpha-diversity of planktonic diatoms along the Yangtze River might be resulted from the selection of simpler indicator for nutrient level in a relatively oligotrophic river (Additional file 1: Figure S14). 2010;119:129–37. Microbiome 7, 153 (2019). The terms ‘Benthic’ and ‘Pelagic’ are both derived from Greek words, which mean ‘depth of the sea’ and ‘open sea’, respectively. Significant differences in abundance of benthic diatoms upstream and downstream of Xiluodu Dam (a) and Three Gorges Dam (b). Nutrient level (TN:TP) had different effects on the diversity and variation of planktonic and benthic diatoms. Domingues RB, Anselmo TP, Barbosa AB, Sommer U, Galvão HM. J Geogr Sci. The channel slope dramatically changes along the Yangtze River, primarily due to the basis of geology, climate and geomorphology. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis of the compositional dissimilarities between diatom communities demonstrated not only a clear spatial differentiation in diatoms between the plateau and the main body of the Yangtze, but also a division between planktonic and benthic groups (Additional file 1: Figure S4). The spatial distribution of TN:TP in water and sediment samples varied in different sampling stations. CAS . Comparison of three spatial interpolation methods for climate variables in China. Third, given the “River continuum concept”  and “Continuous discontinuity concept” , the dominance of benthic or planktonic algae changes with the natural riverine gradient (e.g., channel slope), and interactions are invariably interrupted by anthropogenic disturbances such as dam construction and pollutants discharge. JWW and QXL performed the research. 2001;46:2008–18. 1980;37:130–7. Controls on gas transfer velocities in a large river. reported the importance of both environment and dispersal-related processes in controlling planktonic diatom community structure in stream and rivers, Sweden . Edgar RC. For a better understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of both planktonic and benthic diatom communities, LefSe analysis was used considering its advantages in identifying differentially abundant taxa under different environmental conditions . Price MN, Dehal PS, Arkin AP. 32, No. In the Yangtze River, such interactions have several consequences. Ecol Model. Then we'll discuss how many fields might be appropriate to count to get a representative value for your smear slide. The differentially abundant diatoms in both water and sediments in the six landform types could also be convinced by previous studies on special diatoms in different landforms such as mountain  and plateau . 2017;80:135–46. In fact, other environmental factors such as hydrodynamic condition, light, temperature, and biological predation may also play considerable roles over the full year. 2014;119:143–53. 2018;442:66–78. Based on their ecological characteristics, diatom species are classified into four ecological guilds (low profile, high profile, motile, and planktic guilds) [31,32,33], which are expected to respond in different ways to nutrients’ conditions and physical disturbances. Int Rev Hydrobiol. 2019;11:1342. • Unlike the planktons and benthos, nekton can propel themselves either by swimming or other means. They are also typically found at or near the surface of the water. FastTree 2 - approximately maximum-likelihood trees for large alignments. The average relative abundance of indicator species in the source area exceeded 40%, and planktonic indicator species contributed more reads than benthic indicator species. Qu S, Wang L, Lin A, Zhu H, Yuan M. What drives the vegetation restoration in Yangtze River basin, China: climate change or anthropogenic factors? planktonic . Our study generated a total of 8,602,620 V4 18S rDNA reads from 279 samples. 3a, b). Second, the richness of planktonic diatoms appeared to fluctuate with PAR, whereas the richness of benthic diatoms tended to change with temperature. 1992;37:232–43. NMDS and ANOSIM statistics were carried out using the vegan package in R. The linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe)  was used with Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests to discover high-dimensional biomarker and explain taxa difference at different environment conditions of PAR or channel slope. Changes in water level also affect the light intensity and temperature to benthic diatoms.  calculated and spatialized PAR using data simulation method  based on three climatic datasets, i.e., daily sunshine duration data at 740 weather stations across China for 1961–2007 and global radiation data at 122 radiation stations across China for 1961–2000 from China Meteorological Administration, and PAR observatory data at 36 field stations across China for 2004–2007 from Chinese Ecosystem Research Network. This is because both proxies are preserved in planktonic and benthic foraminiferal shells and show chemical contrasts between the surface and deep oceans in response to the biological pump, yet there are differences in behaviour (in particular the effect of air-sea exchange on δ 13 C) which leads to potentially revealing discrepancies in their palaeoceanographic distributions (e.g., Boyle 1988, … Planktonic diatoms were dominated by Cyclotella (average relative abundance: 17.66%), Stephanodiscus (12.81%), Pinnularia (7.53%), Paralia (7.34%), and Skeletonema (4.90%), whereas benthic diatoms were dominated by Navicula (13.12%), Cyclotella (10.33%), Pinnularia (10.12%), Surirella (7.10%), and Stephanodiscus (6.53%). Google Scholar. Phylogenetic distribution of reference sequence and abundant OTUs. Aquat Microb Ecol. Jäger CG, Borchardt D. Longitudinal patterns and response lengths of algae in riverine ecosystems: a model analysis emphasising benthic-pelagic interactions. A previous study showed that despite a relatively large number of environmental factors measured, the proportion of community variations explained by the environment remains low (Zhou et al., 2008). Variation partitioning of diatom composition showed that a greater percentage (14.6–21.2%) could be explained by a purely environmental component than that (3.4–6.0%) of the total variation by a pure spatial component (Additional file 1: Figure S12), and a minor portion (0.4–5.4%) explained by spatially structured environmental heterogeneity, leaving the majority of the total variation (68.7–79.0%) inexplicable. Lin Z-H, Mo X-G, Li H-X, Li H-B. Six types of environmental samples were taken along the Yangtze River, including water and sediment samples from the river source region (i.e., water-plateau (12 samples) and sediment-plateau (12 samples)) and those from the mainstream in the non-plateau area (i.e., water-spring (38 samples), water-autumn (46 samples), sediment-spring (87 samples), and sediment-autumn (84 samples)). Figure S3. Environ Sci Pollut Res. Partial Mantel tests were conducted to assess the pure effects of geographical distance (controlling for environmental distance) and environmental distance (controlling for geographic distance) on diatom community similarity with 9999 permutations. Yamada KD, Tomii K, Katoh K. Application of the MAFFT sequence alignment program to large data - reexamination of the usefulness of chained guide trees. For example, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is characterized with lower temperature, higher altitude, and the greatest PAR, while the basin (mostly located in Sichuan province) receives the lowest light resource. 2009;75:7537–41. Microbiome. As adjectives the difference between planktonic and nektonic is that planktonic is of or pertaining to plankton while nektonic is swimming independently of currents. Ann Arbor, Michigan; 1983. Google Scholar. Bioinformatics. During the wet season (autumn), the higher flow discharge weakens the correlation between planktonic community similarity and channel slope, although a stronger correlation between benthic community similarity and channel slope is maintained due to higher mobility of the streambed (Fig. Rimet F, Bouchez A. Life-forms, cell-sizes and ecological guilds of diatoms in European rivers. B-Béres V, Török P, Kókai Z, Lukács Á, T-Krasznai E, Tóthmérész B, et al. PubMed The width of ribbons for each diatoms is directly proportional to their relative abundance in each sample type. 2016;32:3246–51. c Interpretations on the biogeographic patterns of diatom communities, with main influencing factors such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), channel slope, and nutrients characterized by ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphate (TN:TP). On the other hand, seasonal differences were more evident in planktonic diatoms than benthic diatoms (Additional file 1: Figure S4-S6). The word "plankton " comes from a German word meaning "drifters. Financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. For each sampling sites, longitude, latitude, and altitude were recorded by a handheld GPS (Magellan, USA). Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, et al. Monteith JL. Air bubbles drawn in with the sample were eliminated by tapping and draining water while the syringe is pointing upwards. Depending on the particular species and the environmental conditions, larval or juvenile-stage meroplankton may remain in the pelagic zone for durations ranging from hour to months.  investigated planktonic diatoms dominated by physical constraints at two stations of the River Adige, Italy. A similar explanation has been proved to apply to the biogeographical pattern of planktonic or benthic diatom communities in small rivers using morphological analysis [26,27,28]. Numbers of Indicator species and Top Indicator species across sample sites. These sea-surface dwellers evolved faster than most of their benthic counterparts making them more suitable as biostratigraphic markers. Compilations of deep sea benthic foraminifer oxygen isotopes have revealed the long history of global climate change over the past 100 million years. 2010;5:e9490. Meanwhile, Navicula, Pinnularia, and Cyclotella became the dominant genera, represented 14.4, 9.1, and 6.9% of total sequences, respectively, in sediment samples, in which Navicula was dominant in either sediment-plateau (17.1%), sediment-autumn (13.1%), or sediment-spring samples (13.2%). Ecol Monogr. Planktonic foraminifera account for only around 50 species of 10,000 species around today. Article Influence of diatom diversity on the ocean biological carbon pump. Higher TN:TP was observed in water samples (13.8~45.63) than in sediment samples (0.004~0.65). Species with indicator value ≥ 0.3 and p value ≤ 0.01 were defined as indicator species at class, order, family, and genus levels. 4c). Planktonic foraminifer oxygen isotopes are used to investigate the history of past sea surface temperatures, revealing the extent of past ‘greenhouse’ warming and global sea surface temperatures. 2002;153:51–68. 1997;67:345–66. 2006;61:134–48. Typical benthic diatoms (e.g., Nitzschia and Navicula) were found in high abundance in the water column. Various DNA barcoding studies have been successfully conducted, based on different maker genes, including COI , ITS , and 18S rDNA [9, 12]. Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. B-Béres V, Lukács Á, Török P, Kókai Z, Novák Z, T-Krasznai E, et al. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was performed to visualize the dissimilarity of different samples based on Bray-Curtis similarity matrices. Water Resour Res. Diatom Res. 2003;300:958–61. Water (Switzerland). Diatom composition in terms of ecological guilds showed spatial dissimilarity in water and sediment samples (Additional file 1: Figure S10). Terms and Conditions, Diatoms play a particularly important role in the biogeochemical cycle  of primary elements such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica, contributing about 20–25% of global primary production .
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