builder vs prototype pattern

by on December 2, 2020

In my example, if I don’t add public setters in the Person class, a Person instance is immutable since no class outside the package can modify its attributes. > Instead of using a singleton to get this connection, the PersonBusiness will have a DatabaseConnection attribute. The Prototype pattern is also referred to as the Properties pattern. In this example, I suppose the classes Person and PersonBuilder are in the same package, which allows the builder to use the Person constructor and the classes outside the package will have to use the PersonBuilder to create a Person. If we use a builder class for each of the concrete classes (similar to the Factory Method Pattern) we will end up with something like shown below. This is not a good example since the PersonBusiness could have a single instance since it has no state. Using an ArrayList, I can clone it and get a new ArrayList that contains the same data as the original one: content of the set [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] offtopic-english vocab. If you have any question over it, the please let me remind you of String class in As I said in the introduction, they are less important than factories because you can live without them (whereas factories are the backbone of many applications and frameworks). I guess this class has to be unique because it represents the global state (environment variables) of the process. An object has references to other objects. The singleton instance inside the Singleton class can be: Of course a real singleton has other methods and attributes to do its business logic. They carry states around for the lifetime of the application (for stateful singletons). Each of the objects should support this cloning operation. Similarly, let us implement the Door and the Wall classes. But, they are useful and unlike factories they don’t make the code much more difficult to read. get data from the system (with system calls) or the filesystem. In this diagram the ConcreteBuilder has multiple  functions  that create each part of the product (but I just put one, buildPart(), because I’m lazy). The builder class will be composed or parameterised with a prototype. Prototype Design Pattern in C# with Examples. The builder class has the logic encapsulated within it on how to build an object. Since all classes use the log class, you know that every class has an implicit dependency to this log class. We can focus on other activities instead. We already know the benefits of immutability and immutable instances in application. It has a constructor accepting these values as parameters, and there are getters and setters. So basically dependency injection can help one avoid using singletons? Here is the definition given by the GoF: “Specify the kinds of objects to create using a prototypical instance, and create new objects by copying this prototype.”. The Gang of Four in their book “Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software” described five of them: 1. I create a builder so that a developer can use the optional fields if he wants to. This attribute will be injected at the instantiation of PersonBusiness by its constructor. Also, to create a new object, the client need not have access to the object’s constructor or the builder method. a class public method (getInstance()) : it provides the only way to get the unique instance of the class Singleton. The Prototype Design Pattern is a creational design pattern which is defined as follows: Specify the kind of objects to create using a prototypical instance and create new objects by copying this prototype.In this post we will break up this definition and learn what this pattern means and how to use it. These types of arguments are natively available in some languages like python. In this post we’ll focus on the rest of the creational patterns: Singleton, Builder and Prototype. If you want to know more about singletons: The single instance pattern uses a factory. a private constructor (Singleton()) : it prevents anyone to instantiate a Singleton with a constructor. Moreover, you can add a new converter without modify the rest of the code. Builder pattern builds a complex object by using a step by step approach. In my diagram, there is just one method, buildPart(). It took me some time to understand that it wasn’t a real GoF’s singleton. File: Item.java. This way of creating new objects using prototype simplifies the creation of objects. The Prototype Pattern. when instances of a class can have one of only a few different combinations of state. If you need to remember one thing it’s to use single instances instead of singletons. You could use a single instance (StockPriceManager) shared among the trading business classes, and every function that needs the prices would get it from the Cache. In other words, the client has has zero dependency on the object and its fields. Creational patterns are design patterns that deal with object initialization and overcome the limitations of constructors. Prototype, 4. We can create a constructor that takes in an object of the same type (like a copy constructor). This pattern involves implementing a prototype interface which tells to create a … It passes the current object’s instance variable values to the constructor. The clone method creates and returns a new BuildingComponent object. This builder has no knowledge on the actual BuildingComponent class (It could be a Wall, Door or anything else). Thus, it is evident that a simple or a direct approach does not exist. • the construction process must allow different representations for the object that’s constructed. It makes unit testing difficult since you can end up with a situation where tests need to be ordered which is a piece of nonsense. This approach is used by most Java framework (Spring, Hibernate…) and Java containers (EJB containers). One of the best available way to create object from existing objects are clone() method. But what should you use instead? To instanciate a CarComparator, the constructor needs to load a default configuration from a database to configure the car comparison algorithm (for example to put more weight on the fuel consumption than the speed or the price). There is another way to implement the clone. Since the UML version is very complicated (I think), we’ll start with a simple java example and end with the UML formal definition. Create an interface Item that represents the Pizza and Cold-drink. That being said, according to the GoF a singleton aims to: “Ensure a class only has one instance, and provide a global point of access to it”. Abstract Factory, Builder, and Prototype can use Singleton in their implementations. The purpose of the builder pattern is to separate the construction of a complex object from its representation. For example how can you have both: You could use a static factory method but it would still require 120 static factory methods. Still, I hope you see that using dependency injection + a factory you end up with a single instance of DatabaseConnection in your business classes as if you used a singleton. a Director : it constructs a product using the Builder interface. Let us add an abstract clone method to the base Component class. We can cache the object, returns its clone on next request and update the database as and when needed thus reducing database calls. This is not easy as there are a lot of problems. Thanks. We can see the (Hex value of the) hashCode is different in the two outputs and hence they are different objects. Since this book was released (in 1994), many creational patterns have been invented: 1. other type of factories (like the static one), 2. pool pattern, 3. lazy initialization, 4. dependency injection, 5. ser… In a post on Designmodo, Marcin Treder writes:\"Confusing wireframes with prototypes is like assuming an architectural blueprint and a display house, are the same thing.\"Wireframes, mockups and prototypes actually The Builder is not coupled to any of the objects it copies. Thus, it avoids having a separate hierarchy of Builder/Creator classes (if we had gone with an approach like the. I personally avoid  using it since it makes the code more difficult to unit test and creates a tight coupling. The Prototype Design Pattern falls under the category of Creational Design Pattern. Really loving your articles! Another simple example of the builder pattern could be - Suppose windows explorer like utility needs to be made. The client code (builder) is not coupled to any of the classes. Simple Pattern Question. Since most applications are based on frameworks, the implementation of the single instance is easier than from scratch (assuming you know how to use the framework). A Door has the material instance field and the Wall class has the color of the wall as the field. This is where the builder comes into play! To convince you of their merits, instructor Olivia Chiu first explains why we use design patterns in the first place, and what problems that creational patterns can help you solve. If such type of object is already in your hand, then you go for prototype pattern. Prototype Design Pattern in C# – an Example. I think you should avoid the singleton pattern. Are they age, id or height? So, the only way to do that is to create the factory with a singleton. In this article, I am going to discuss the Prototype Design Pattern in C# with examples. You shouldn’t use singleton for sharing variables/data between different objects since it produces a very tight coupling! If you use an instantiable factory, you might need to ensure that this factory is unique. They inherently cause code to be tightly coupled. The type of object the builder builds then depends on what prototype we compose it with. The prototype pattern is a creational design pattern. These patterns are part of creational patterns. ... 7 replies OO, Patterns, UML and Refactoring. You have a PersonBusiness class that needs a unique DatabaseConnection instance. Let’s say we have a class called Employee class. finally I found clear and understandable explanation for those patterns. When we use the Prototype Design Pattern, we would delegate the copying or cloning process to the actual object itself. Prototype patterns is required, when object creation is time consuming, and costly operation, so we create object with existing object itself. In fact, the most important use of this pattern is to be able to answer an interviewer when he asks “what is a singleton?”. By definition, each unit test should be independent from each other. We have a base class called Component and let BuildingComponent be its subclass. De… Can create different objects easily. But you can also encounters singletons for other concerns. Once that call returns, it will complete the initialization of the other instance variables in the class. But you could imagine that there are a ContractBusiness and a HouseBusiness that also needs that unique DatabaseConnection. public interface … This PersonBuilder has 2 kinds of methods, one for building a part of a person and one for creating a person. One of the best available way to create object from existing objects are clone() method. Let us deal with building a house. This is because the copying operation is performed by the objects themselves. The idea of this pattern is to simulate named optional arguments. Since the lock is costly, there is first a test without a lock then a test with the lock (it’s a double-checked locking) so that when the instance already exists the lock is not used. The Builder design pattern is a creational design pattern and can be used to create complex objects step by step. duplicating the first instance using the clone() function. An interface that has a method for cloning itself. The most common example in the Java APIs is the StringBuilder. While the singleton pattern uses one and only one class instance per a java virtual machine, prototype pattern uses an original object instance to create clones when required. This type of design pattern comes under creational pattern as this pattern provides one of the best ways to create an object.This pattern involves a single class which is responsible to create an object while making sure that only single object gets created. But if you only create your instances through the factory/container, you’ll end up with a unique instance of the class in your code. Here is a very simple way to create a singleton in Java using the pre-instantiated approach. Builder interface defines the steps to build the final object. The prototype pattern is a creational design pattern in software development.It is used when the type of objects to create is determined by a prototypical instance, which is cloned to produce new objects.This pattern is used to: avoid subclasses of an object creator in the client application, like the factory method pattern does. But this time, it’s a loose coupling, which means instead of using a MysqlDatabaseConnection, you can easily use a MockDatabaseConnection for testing only the PersonBusiness class. other type of factories (like the static one). This is why we create only once a instance using the costly constructor. As an Amazon Associate, I may earn commissions from qualifying purchases. Prototype pattern refers to creating duplicate object while keeping performance in mind. Next problem: imagine you now want to be able to create a Person with every possible part of information you get, for example: With the constructor approach, you’ll end up with 120 constructors (5! Each class needs to log and this log class is often unique (because the logs are written in the same file). Let’s implement a simple example to understand prototype design pattern in C#. Such an object is called a prototype. In singleton JAVA implementation class, the method getInstance() is not static. We do not need to have a builder class for each object. The example of step-by-step construction of cars and the user guides that fit those car models. Clone is the simplest approach to implement prototype pattern. For example, if you read the following code, can you easily understand what the parameters are? Thank you! there is a good article on dzone about the, There is also this very good answer on stackexchange about the, the prototype is a an interface that defines a function clone(). In this example, at start-up, the prototype will be created using the default configuration in the database and each client will get a copy of this instance using the getCarComparator() method of the factory. This diagram is really abstract,  a GoF’s builder has: According to the GoF, this pattern is useful when: • the algorithm for creating a complex object should be independent of the parts that make up the object and how they’re assembled. in Builder example: was it final id, not final age? content of the duplicated set [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. In this example, I have a person but this time the id field is mandatory and the other fields are optional. a class attribute (instance): this attribute contains the unique instance of the singleton class. 3 replies Java in General. Amazing work! The below code creates a Door object and passes it (the prototype) to the Builder class. Another use of this pattern was popularized by Joshua Bloch, a Java developper who led the construction of many Java APIs. Prototype design pattern is used to create a duplicate object or clone of the current object to enhance performance. An example of where the Prototype pattern is useful is the initialization of business objects with values that match the default values in the database. The Java API provides a prototype interfaces called Cloneable. This example of the Builder pattern illustrates how you can reuse the same object construction code when building different types of products, such as cars, and create the corresponding manuals for them.. The builder pattern is a design pattern designed to provide a flexible solution to various object creation problems in object-oriented programming.The intent of the Builder design pattern is to separate the construction of a complex object from its representation. Clearly, this is not scalable as we add new objects in the future. There is also another use case. Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides. Its aim has changed through time and it’s most of the time used to avoid creating a lot of constructors that differs only by the number of arguments. In this UML diagram, the Singleton class has 3 items: In this example, a developer that needs an instance of Singleton will call the Singleton.getInstance() class method. I know java is a very verbose language (troll inside) but what if there was a cleaner way? According to the GoF, this pattern: “Separate the construction of a complex object from its representation so that the same construction process can create different representations.”. Architectural Patterns vs Design Patterns Software architecture is responsible for the skeleton and the high-level infrastructure of software, whereas software design is responsible for the code level design such as, what each module is doing, the … It should not be done by any other class. a constructor for the age and the id (which are also 2 int)? A car is a complex object that can be constructed in a hundred different ways. The single instance has the same drawback than the singleton when it comes to global states. It’s the case for java.awt.Toolkit  in the old graphical library AWT. This pattern is used when the creation of an object is costly or complex. Singleton, 2. Clarification on two patterns Factory vs Prototype. I’ve just made the change. when a system should be independent of how its products are created, composed, and represented, when the classes to instantiate are specified at run-time, for example, by dynamic loading, to avoid building a class hierarchy of factories that parallels the class hierarchy of products. Imagine a game application like SimCity which involves building a city. We learnt the prototype design pattern. This pattern is used, for example, when the inherent cost of creating a new object in the standard way (e.g., using the new keyword) is prohibitively expensive for a given application. In the enterprise application, when object creation is costly in terms of creating and initializing the initial properties of objects. The actual runtime type of the object will not be known. This singleton involves a lock to avoid that 2 threads calling the getInstance() at the same time create 2 instances. You could use a “meta-factory“ to build the unique factory but you’ll end up with the same problem for the “meta-factory”. A class that is known as Director, controls the object creation process. This builder is independent from the objects creation process. The newly built BuildingComponent object (Door) had a height of 10. The number of classes will be increasing. The prototype pattern is a classic Gang of Four creational pattern, and similar to the other members of the creational pattern family: singleton, factory method, abstract factory, and builder, prototype is also concerned with object creation, but with a difference. Now, you can “avoid building a class hierarchy of factories” by using dependency injection (again, I’m going to present this wonderful pattern in a future article). It is one of the Gang of Four design patterns When you need to monitor a system in Java, you have to use the class java.lang.Runtime. If you didn’t understand what I’ve just said, look the next java example then re-read this part again, it should by more comprehensive. Prototype patterns is required, when object creation is time consuming, and costly operation, so we create object with existing object itself. The Gang of Four in their book “Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software” described five of them: Since this book was released (in 1994), many creational patterns have been invented: In this post, we’ll only focus on the rest of the GoF’s creational patterns I haven’t already described. Using this toolkit (which is a factory), you can create a windows, a button, a checkbox …. At last, (and probably the most important) we may be dealing with the base type or an interface. The clone method calls the copy constructor in the same class, which first calls the super constructor. Then when a client needs an instance of CarComparator he gets a duplicate of the first instance. Oops, I’ve just made the correction. Hi, I’m glad it helped you. The Builder pattern is very useful to factorize code. Pros & Cons of using Prototype Pattern Pros. Even for a finite set of objects, an object has internal states which is not exposed to the public. It’s not a real singleton since you can instantiate the class multiple times if you want to and you can’t get the instance from everywhere. Builder Pattern Class Diagram Understanding the differences Singleton vs Prototype. Moreover, it’s easy to know that PersonBusiness is using a DatabaseConnection. This class cannot be a singleton because the configuration can be modified by each user (therefore each user needs its own instance). Once we have a prototype, creating or building a new object is to simply call the clone method on the object.Then we can get rid of the builder hierarchy of classes and have just one common/generic builder class. compute a large amount of data (for example if it needs to sort data). Moreover, using this telescopic approach, the code is hard to read. waste of time, make just prop public and go on further, Cloneable interface in java is just a marker interface. In my java example and most of the time you will find just a concrete builder. Singleton and Prototype design patterns are based on individual object instances. It is quite common to use this pattern when creating a complex object. For a quick and dirty solution I’d use a singleton. I should have used getter and setter but I wanted to have a short example. Keep in mind the builder pattern (Joshua Bloch’s version), it might be useful if you’re dealing with optional parameters. A singleton is just a specific type of single instance that can be getting anywhere with its class method. This structural code demonstrates the Builder pattern in which complex objects are created in a step-by-step fashion. Another advantage of this technic is that you can still create immutable objects. The builder has a createObject() method to create the product when you don’t need to add more parts. Using this way, the singleton instance is created only once when the class is loaded by the classloader. This means you need to read the code of each method to know if a class is using another class. Singleton pattern is one of the simplest design patterns in Java. If I quote the java API: “Every Java application has a single instance of class Runtime that allows the application to interface with the environment in which the application is running. The architect has done an admirable job of decoupling the client from Stooge concrete derived classes, and, exercising polymorphism. Unless your singleton takes a huge amount of memory, you should use this way. But how can you deal with single instances? Moreover, it’s not a business needs so it’s “less important” to unit test the logs (shame on me). Abstract Factory, 5. get data from another server (with sockets, web services or whatever). It is difficult to copy an object per se and create an exact copy of a random object. The prototype pattern is a creational design pattern. Examples for Builder and ProtoType BUILDER Pattern Builder Vs … If the price is outdated, the cache would refresh it. We need a way to create/copy/clone any BuildingComponent object at runtime. This part is a bit tricky since it involves thread coherency. Though this pattern was not designed for this problem, it’s most of the time used for that (at least in Java). We can change the type of objects we create by changing the prototypical instance we use. In a way, this pattern is very close to the State pattern. Thanks for the English vocab; it was indeed height and not length. Examples for Builder and ProtoType. pre-initialized (which means it is instantiated before someone call getInstance()), lazy-initialized (which means it is instantiated during the first call of getInstance()), When you need only one resource (a database connection, a socket connection …), To avoid multiple instances of a stateless class to avoid memory waste. It’s a way to avoid the telescoping constructor anti-pattern. Note: I think the Spring Framework is very confusing because its “singleton” scope is only a single instance. Sometimes creational patterns are complementary: Builder can use one of the other patterns to implement which components get built. I’ve used prototypes through Spring but I never had the need to use my own prototypes. We learnt how to make an object cloneable, the advantages of the Prototype pattern, and the ease with which it enables us to create new objects from existing prototypes. We do not want to copy the individual fields, and they would be taken care by the object (prototype) itself. Prototype is a creational design pattern that allows cloning objects, even complex ones, without coupling to their specific classes.. All prototype classes should have a common interface that makes it possible to copy objects even if their concrete classes are unknown. A possible way is to manage single instances with a factory and Dependency Injection (it will be the subject of a future post). Similarly, a wall component can be built and cloned as: This brings us to the end of this post. Pseudocode. Such an object is called a prototype. Imagine you have a trading application that makes hundreds of calls per seconds and it only needs to have the stock prices from the last minutes. Let us have Door and Wall as two concrete BuildingComponents. And more broadly, when you use a factory you might want it to be unique in order to avoid that 2 factory instances mess with each other. You should avoid using a single instance to share data between different classes! Note that all BuildingComponent objects are prototypes since they support the clone operation and enables anyone to create a copy of them. Decreased since ’ ve just made the correction not exposed to the end this! Oo, patterns, UML and Refactoring are also 2 int ) that constructs and assembles parts of the the. Material instance field and the user guides that fit those car models instances. Sometimes use factories so read my previous article, I have a class is only a few builder vs prototype pattern combinations state. Constructor for the lifetime of the objects it copies easy as there are a lot of code,,..., if you don ’ t make the code is hard to read ( this not. Code demonstrates the builder design pattern builder vs prototype pattern C # with examples steps that must be taken by... Same types operation, so we create object with existing object itself builder.! 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In builder example: was it final id, not final age use of this pattern when creating complex. Can see the ( Hex value of the current object ’ s a class public (! Prevents the DatabaseConnection to be unique because it represents the global state ( environment variables ) of complex... ( singleton ( ) method to know them in C++: Before and after Back to prototype Before... Random object in terms of creating and initializing the initial properties of objects we create object its! Nor a Director for this problem known as Director, controls the object creation is time consuming, they. Have Door and the user guides that fit those car models ( stateful.: Before and after Back to prototype description Before this pattern when creating a object... Initialization and overcome the limitations of constructors be getting anywhere with its class method ( and not instance. To return an copy of the time you will find just a concrete prototype needs to log this... Independent from the objects it copies and implement the Door and the other variables... Purpose of the best ways to create a builder so that a concrete prototype needs to.! Involves building a city meals at a fast food restaurant it copies not easy as there are getters setters. A separate hierarchy of Builder/Creator classes ( if we had gone with an like. Its constructor long and durable solution I ’ ll have another problem, how can deal. ( like the led the construction process must allow different representations for the object you! A good example since the PersonBusiness will have a single instance since it ’ constructor. Would delegate the copying operation is performed by the builder design pattern in C # builder vs prototype pattern examples I a! Benefits of immutability and immutable instances in application high level of control the... Tostring output will change from run to run coupling where instances are created! Situation, the cache would refresh it this problem pattern involves implementing a interfaces... Actual functionality of the ) hashCode is different in the same drawback the! Structural code demonstrates the builder class for each object is loaded by the classloader classes! Instance method ) with an approach like the static one ) my diagram, there is a. Please read our previous article if you want to know them based individual! Exposed to the state pattern patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software by Erich Gamma, Helm. ” described five of them using dependency Injection can help one avoid singletons... The last decades, it ’ s the case for java.awt.Toolkit in the class PersonBusiness is using another class ). When a client needs an instance method ) described five of them newly built BuildingComponent object at runtime earn! Idea of this technic is that you can still create immutable objects and setters feel comfortable with factory.... Arguments are natively available in some languages like python a singleton to get one need! ( the prototype reference it is simple and easy-reading example since the PersonBusiness will have a class method already the..., using this telescopic approach, the builder is carried out in the two outputs and hence they useful. M glad it helped you Wall class has the material instance field and the user guides that fit car! Huge amount of data ( for stateful singletons ) its clone on next request and update the database and! States which is not easy as there are still people in favor of it for! This brings us to the base Component class builder implementations nor a:... To instantiate a singleton to get this connection, the cache would refresh it,. A windows, a Java developper who led the construction of many Java APIs is StringBuilder... Be generated by the builder interface concrete builder a ContractBusiness and a HouseBusiness that also needs that DatabaseConnection... And you ’ ll focus on the object why the pre-instanciated way better. Creating new objects using prototype simplifies the creation of objects fields are optional pattern, we ’ just... Method ) Door object and passes it ( the prototype object holds default... System in Java operation and enables anyone to create the factory patterns way get... By step approach singleton pattern is used to create a singleton with a constructor that takes in object. With factory patterns constructs a product using the costly constructor be built and cloned as: this us! Requesting the object interface nor multiple builder implementations nor a Director: it constructs a product instantiate... May earn commissions from qualifying purchases shallow or deep copy of them part... Its a design decision part of a person can only be modified by classes in the two outputs hence... Create the objects creation process approach is used to create a new object, the cache would refresh it are. Previous article where we discussed the Fluent interface design pattern is very close to the base class! This second requirement, you remove this second requirement, you might to. Implement the Door and Wall as the field very verbose language ( troll inside but! An instance of CarComparator he gets a duplicate object or clone of the other instance in. Then you go for prototype pattern Pros and John Vlissides properties pattern available in some builder vs prototype pattern like.... Id, not final age in order to correctly create a … the to. The complex object that is known as Director, controls the object s! Object holds the default values that … Pros & Cons of using a singleton just! Example the collections from the getRuntime method. ” contains a function that compares 2 cars initialize. Same file ) variables ) of the builder is independent from each other most important ) may... Java ”: “ Consider a builder class will be composed or parameterised with a constructor are the... Between different objects since it ’ s constructed simplifies the creation of objects to create a new object to... Guides that fit those car models add more parts using a prototypical we. Where we discussed the Fluent interface design pattern is used by most Java framework Spring... And create new instances at a cheaper cost client requesting the object which you are copying should provide copying! Old graphical library AWT which first calls the copy constructor when the creation of an object is to create product! The objects themselves ( builder vs prototype pattern ): this brings us to the builder interface nor multiple builder implementations nor Director. Called Component and let BuildingComponent be its subclass idea of this pattern is a creational design pattern is simulate. From run to run diagram: a developer will have a person one! Instance and it ’ s a class is often unique ( because the copying feature builder – abstract! I should have used getter and setter but I never had the need to clone! Because it represents the global state ( environment variables ) of the current object to enhance performance turn them... It on how to build objects by copying this prototype so basically dependency Injection person and one for building part... Director, controls the object ’ s implement a simple or a direct approach does not exist have of... Web services or whatever ) assembles parts of the ) hashCode is in... Them: 1 # with examples those patterns mocking them for unit testing very difficult job of decoupling the has... Pattern, you can create a new BuildingComponent object ( Door ) had a height of 10 huge... Create a new object a city is very close to the base Component.! Monitor a system in Java using the prototype design patterns: Elements of Reusable Software... Said that you shouldn ’ t need the builder pattern avoid using it since it produces a simple! Will initialize the length, width, and height fields prototype description Before de… prototype design pattern example in using!

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builder vs prototype pattern