The acquisition of Pringles made Kellogg the second-largest snack company in the world. The large amount of flavor options may help Pringles to stay relevant, as there is always an interesting flavor they came out with just around the corner. The rest, as they say, is history. On Tuesday, April 5th, 2011, Procter & Gamble announced it would be selling the Pringles brand to Diamond Foods, a California originating food company and now a brand. In a typical ad, a group of people are enjoying Pringles, while a lone person is eating a bag of generic potato chips (the bags themselves resemble either Lay's or Ruffles, depending on the Pringles variety marketed in the ad). They produced many snacks and foods such as Cheez-It and Fruit Loops. Another idea for where Pringles received its name is that it is just an easy name to say. One serving of about 16 Pringles (Original flavor) contains 150 calories, 2.5 g of saturated fat, 150 mg of sodium, 110 mg of potassium, and 1 g of protein. It is said some employees of Procter & Gamble have stated the name for Pringles was selected by picking names out of a Cincinnati phone book that started with the letter P, before settling on Pringle Drive for its pleasing name. 2,000 calories a day is used for general nutrition advice. Beginning in the late 1990s and continuing today, Pringles advertising has returned to comparing their product to bagged chips, which they view as greasy and broken. Around 1990’s Pringles began to seem a bit more health conscious, and advertisements showing some Pringles variants to be low in fat content were aired. , As of 2011, Pringles were sold in more than 140 countries. I’ve enjoyed Pringles my whole life. Pringles was a big thing for me as a kid. Planters Peanuts are a classic peanut brand, featuring a variety of types of peanuts. Currently Pringles are sold in over 140 countries and Pringles are available in more than 100 different flavours. hundreds of different designs for the containers of Pringles, http://smartlabel.kelloggs.com/Product/Index/00038000138416. Lawyers for Procter & Gamble argued that Pringles were not truly crisps, despite being labeled "Potato Crisps" on their container. Snack History participates in the Amazon Associate and Ebay Partner Network programs and receives earnings from qualifying purchases.  However, the deal fell through in February 2012 after a year-long delay due to issues over Diamond's accounts. Pringles has also been a sponsor with eSport leagues, first starting its involvement ESL in the year 2017. Pringles, as a product brand, is especially known for its packaging, a tubular paperboard can with a foil-lined interior (until the 1980s, the cans also contained a removable paper liner which held the chips in place) and a resealable plastic lid, which was invented by Fredric J. Baur, an organic chemist and food storage technician who specialized in research and development and quality control for Cincinnati-based Procter & Gamble. The snack was originally developed by Procter & Gamble (P&G), who first sold the product in 1967 - creating the stackable chips product category. If Pringles Potato Crisps are one of your favorite snack foods, then you should check out these top interesting facts about Pringles! It is a tubular can with a back internal, and a resealable flexible lid; it as-well has a illustrious logo, a stylized representation of a object with a abundant moustache and parted bangs. In most countries, Pringles are available in various volumes for use. Fred Baur is often credited with being the inventor of Pringles, though Alexander Liepa was the one listed on the patent for Pringles after his work was completed. The patent for Pringles posted for the year 1976, Wolf said this man had invented the basic idea of how to make the potato dough, made a statement to the under-performance of Pringles. One theory refers to Mark Pringle, who filed a US Patent 2,286,644 titled "Method and Apparatus for Processing Potatoes" on March 5, 1937. Wolf said this man had invented the basic idea of how to make the potato dough, pressing it between two forms, more or less as in a wrap-around. Pringles Newfangled Potato Chips Commercial, back when “Newfangled” was in Pringles product name. , The consistent saddle shape is mathematically known as a hyperbolic paraboloid. Advertising for the snack continued to become more focused on the how it claimed that Pringles tasted better than other chips, and how consumers would go crazy for it, such as family members attempt to take others chips for themselves. The potato chips of “Pringles” are famous of their different and unusual packaging. Over the years many flavors of Pringles was introduced, including Grilled Shrimp flavor, Milk Chocolate, and Cheddar Cheese flavor. product that is is known as today. You can also find some pretty interesting deals on buying Pringles in bulk by using an online seller, rather then trying to buy a bunch of single cans at one time. This would not be surprising as the design of sound that a product makes is in important part of many snacks.  Another theory says that P&G chose the Pringles name from a Cincinnati telephone book.. People criticised the tube because it was almost impossible to recycle. It is hard to pin down the exact reason why Pringles was selected as a name. The potato chips of "Pringles" are famous of their different and unusual packaging. Since the acquisition, Pringles sales have increased from $4.8 billion in 2011 to $6.5 billion in 2014.The growth of the brand has occurred globally, as two-thirds of total sales are sold outside of the United States.. Why is it Called Pringles? On May 31, 2012, The Kellogg Company officially acquired Pringles for $2.695 billion as part of a plan to grow its international snacks business. It has been suggested that the sound that Pringles makes is very deliberate; And that Pringles are mathematically made not only for stacking, but also for the cracking sound they can make.  In May 2009, the Court of Appeal reversed the earlier decision. Pringles have a shelf life of 15 months - and three million cans are made across Europe every day. Pringles used a combination of cost plus and value based pricing for their pricing method. The original name of these was Pringle… This may be one of the reasons why Pringles has at least 162 flavors, if not more. As it stands, there are several different ideas for how Pringles got its name, but at the time none of the current theories seem concretely proven. Pringles is a brand of potato and wheat-based stackable snack chips, owned by the Kellogg Company. The first time i tried them i did not like them very much. Still, why does Pringles have so many flavors in the first place? It is a doubly ruled surface: it contains two families of mutually skew lines. ", "Supercomputers crunching potato chips, proteins and nuclear bombs", "Chinese Supercomputer Wrests Title From U.S.", "Method and apparatus for processing potatoes", "Where Did 'Pringles' Come From? It has been claimed that the parabolic shape of Pringles are made to maximize the sound of crunch that can be achieved from eating Pringles. Pringles has improved its packaging. While Pringles often has faced criticism for its taste, it does makes a great “blank slate” edible surface to coat every flavor imaginable on. Pringles are known for their signature packaging: a brightly colored tube, perfectly suited for stacking the brand’s saddle-shaped chips. Overall I am not a fan of Pringles, and did not like it much. The US Food and Drug Administration weighed in on the matter, and in 1975 they ruled Pringles could only use the word "chip" in their product name within the phrase: "potato chips made from dried potatoes". Sorry to disappoint, but there’s nothing to see here on flavors or tastes. Developed in 1967, the actual Pringle chips took some time to take off and it wasn’t until around the 1980s that they became a hit. In the mid-1960s, another researcher for P&G, named Alexander Liepa, from Montgomery, Ohio, restarted the work of Fred Baur and succeeded in improving the chip taste enough to take the product to market. Pringles Can. The Pringles logo is a stylized cartoon caricature of the head of a male figure (officially known as "Julius Pringles") designed by Louis R. Dixon, with a large mustache and parted bangs (until 2001, the character had eyebrows and his bow tie framed the product name; in 1998, the bangs and lips were removed from the logo, and his head was widened a little). However, In May 2009, the Court of Appeal reversed the previous decision, subjecting Pringles to the 17.5% VAT at the time. Alexander Liepa finished the work to get Pringles to taste good enough to sell on the market. Fred Baur, the initial inventor for Pringles, spent 2 years making just the shape of the potato crisps and design for the tube container of Pringles. Unlike the current advertising, they only mentioned that, with their pop-top cans (which have been replaced with foil tops since the late 1980s), their chips remain fresh and unbroken, the can holds as many chips as a typical large bag, and their curvy shape allows them to be stackable; thus inspiring the slogan, "Other potato chips just don't stack up. The design reminds me a bit of Jiffy Pop, which uses a similar, expandable packaging to make its own container. Pringles Light, Ridges, as well as various other types were promoted frequently, adding to the brands overall reach to customers. The BBC said the container was "a recycler's nightmare". The brand has also created hundreds of different designs for the containers of Pringles. Pringles did not receive the initial fame that was given to products like Oreo O’s Cereal upon release, and it struggled in its early years with becoming a popular snack product. Another theory suggested that the product’s name was derived when two Procter advertising employees who lived on Pringle Drive in Finneytown (north of Cincinnati, Ohio) took the name from where they lived and thought it paired well with potato. , There are several theories behind the origin of the product's name. The % Daily Value (DV) tells you how much a nutrient in a serving of food contributes to a daily diet. The chips were made of corn and resembled a corn chip in flavor and texture. Pringles was 10 years in the making before the national launch. After that came image, brand, brand character, graphic design and key nomenclature. After Pringles was a bit more established in the minds of consumers, the marketing for Pringles began to turn towards promoting its taste, rather than its unique properties in regards to other chip-type products. Pringles is a popular potato and rice flavored snack chips manufactured and marketed by a global manufacturing corporation, Procter and Gamble. ", By the 1980s, the company launched the "Pringle Jingle", whose lyrics were "Once you taste the flavor ("It's a deep-fried taste! Pringles Wavy are Pringles, with a big crunch and delicious flavors. It could have something to do with the taste of Pringles, its creators always struggled to get it right. Pringles has also released a large amount of flavors and commercials, and over time, the product became the popular crisp (chip?) ; Pringles varieties vary in their ingredients.. A less known flavor to American consumers is Mushroom Pringles, something you don’t just see in most stores in the United States. Alexis C. Madrigal is a staff writer at The Atlantic, a co-founder of the COVID Tracking Project, and the author of Powering the Dream: The History and Promise of Green Technology. On the December 21, 1976 patent for Pringles, the snack is described as “A potato chip product and process wherein a dough is prepared from dehydrated cooked potatoes and water and subsequently fried.”. It is a tubular can with a foil interior, and a resealable plastic lid; it also has a famous logo, a stylized representation of a man with a large moustache and parted bangs. Most of these early commercials called Pringles “Newfangled”, which the container had labeled on it, and told consumers that Pringles did not come broken. Some flavors are distributed only to limited market areas; for example, prawn cocktail, wasabi, and curry flavors have been available in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. You are just few clicks away from buying your favourite Pringles flavour. Students will work individually or in small groups to design their packaging. The potato pieces of “Pringles” are illustrious of their contrariant and singular packaging. Nutrition Facts: Serving Size About 16 Crisps (28 Grams), Calories per serving: 150, Total Fat: 9 Grams (12% DV), Saturated Fat: 2.5 Gram (13% DV), Trans Fat: 0 Grams (0% DV),Cholesterol: 0 (0% DV), Sodium: 150mg (7% DV), Total Carbohydrate: 16 Grams (6% DV), Dietary Fiber: <1 Gram 3% DV), 0, Includes 0 Grams added Sugars:, Protein: 1 Grams. A short history of the Pringle. The first step was to perfect the chips, then to create the sturdy, shippable container. New channel just wanting to inform people how things are made such as food. You Pringles has been sold at stores like Family Dollar, Walmart and Costco. A man named Fred Baur, an organic chemist, was enlisted by Procter & Gamble to create a new type of chip that could solve the aforementioned customer complaints. Until the 1980s, only the original flavor was available in the US. The machine used to cook Pringles was developed by Gene Wolfe, a mechanical engineer and an author known for his fantasy and science fiction novels. The Pringles brand has had an interesting ride through history and is known for its unique can that Pringles chips come in. Yet another theory suggests that the product name Pringles comes from Mark Pringle, who made innovations in potato processing methods. Here is a list of the different flavors of Pringles, Mexican Layered Dip (Restaurant Cravers Pringles), Slow Cooked BBQ flavor (Restaurant Cravers Pringles), Cheesy Fries (Restaurant Cravers Pringles), Kickin’ Chicken Taco flavor (Food Truck Flavors Edition), Grilled Ham And Cheese flavor (Food Truck Flavors Edition), Southern Fired Chicken flavor (Food Truck Flavors Edition), Prosecco And Pink Peppercorn (Dinner Party Edition), Cocktail Sauce flavored Pringles (Dinner Party Edition), Sausage And Crispy Bacon flavored (Dinner Party Edition), Corn flavor (Roasted Corn Flavored Pringles), Flame-Grilled Steak And Caramelized Onion Flavor (Gourmet Pringles), Sea Salt And Black Pepper Flavor (Gourmet Pringles), Exploding Cheese And Chili flavor (Xtreme Edition). Kellogg's is a American multinational food-manufacturing company headquartered in Battle Creek, Michigan. Pringles has a bit of an aroma when you open the lid to the can that contain them. Pringles is throwing almost everything it can think of in terms of flavors on its crisps, from Chili Cheese to Blueberry flavor. Pringles did so poorly during its early days that some called for the product to be removed from the Procter & Gamble’s lineup. Pringles is trying out a new can made of recycled paper -- at least in the United Kingdom. You can buy Pringles online now by using Ebay. 568,878 Patent #US3498798A United States. But over the last 10 years, I’ve become increasingly dissatisfied with their packaging. If Pringles Potato Crisps are one of your favorite snack foods, then you should check out these top interesting facts about Pringles! In most countries, Pringles are available in various volumes for use. The visual identity of Pringles hasn’t changed much since the beginning of the brand, established in 1967 as Pringle’s. Video Advertisement for Pringle Package Physics Project Teresa B.G. You don’t just eat ‘em, you party with ‘em. In 2012, Proctor & Gamble sold away the popular chip to Kellogg’s. One commercial had a man driving with his wife when he felt compelled to go back to check on his can of Pringles, as he was just craving the taste and wanted them. The patent for Pringles posted for the year 1976 lists Alexander Liepa as its inventor, with no mention of Fred Baur. “If there were a junk food hall of fame,” TIME writes, “the original Pringles can would stand proudly next to a Toblerone pyramid in the exhibit on ingenious packaging shapes.” Pringles are known for coming inside of a tube-like container. Pringles is a brand of saddle-shaped potato crisps. , In 2013, Lucasfilm and Pringles jointly commissioned crowdsourcing video studio Tongal for a commercial, with a total of $75,000 in prize money distributed to seven finalists. He called Pringles a “the number one recycling villain” and said it was “impossible” to separate the different parts of the packaging. The container for Pringles crisps is an example of packaging design that merits appreciation for its perfect blend of functionality and originality.. 3, 1970 Filed July 29, 1966, Ser. SIATech Charter High School at San Diego and Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth at UCSC Pack a Pringle Challenge. The product started small, being sold in limited regions until it became sold countrywide in the United States by the mid-1970s. Which means they’re not Pringles. It's a complex construction with a metal base, plastic cap, … US National expansion was in May 1975. Today Pringles are consumed all over the world and considered a turning point in the distribution of snack food. This ruling, against a United Kingdom value added tax (VAT) and Duties Tribunal decision to the contrary, exempted Pringles from the then 17.5% VAT for potato crisps and potato-derived snacks. making the Kellogg company the second-largest snack company in the world at the time. „Julius Pringles‟ logo will appear consistently on Pringles Savory Sauces Colors used on packaging: red and yellow “The hippest anywhere, anytime easy pour sauce that will rock your taste buds and groove with your favorite chip: Pringle‟s most radical lick!” "), then you get the fever ("With a crispy crunch! Pringles offers around 34 different flavors in the US as a … , Pringles are available in several flavors. Kellogg's announced on Wednesday, February 15, 2012, that it would be buying the Pringles brand from P&G for $2.695 billion. Product designers need to retreat from “the Pringles factor” in order to make their packaging more recyclable, an environmental expert has said. “Pringles” history “Pringles” were invented and first sold in 1968 in October in USA, but they were not sold across America till mid – 1970s.  Faced with such a lengthy and unpalatable appellation, Pringles eventually renamed their product potato "crisps", instead of chips. Some of these are limited special editions, and some are readily available. You are just few clicks away from buying your favourite Pringles flavour. Pringles was invented in the year 1967 after a long development process. With its metal base, plastic cap, metal tear-off lid, and foil-lined cardboard sleeve – Pringles’ combination of materials makes the packaging harder to separate, and were described in the report as a “nightmare”. Development continued in the mid-1960s until the product was ready for sale in 1967. Another sing-along rhymes to promote Pringles at the time was “Once you taste the flavor, then you get the fever, then you got the fever for the flavor of a Pringle.”. Released in the year 2002. , This article is about the brand of potato snacks. However, the deal was canceled in February 2012 after a long delay due to issues over Diamond Foods accounts. Pringles has said this packaging design helps retain product "freshness". Pringles is often thought of like a potato chip, however, technically it may just be referred to by its parent company as “crisps”. Len Hooper was the man responsible for developing the equipment for the dough making/dough rolling portion of the process of making Pringles. In conclusion, it is important to emphasize that Pringles is an example of good brand positioning, how to maintain consumer interest for decades, and remain among the best-selling brands. When Pringles was new to the market, the product was referred to as "Pringles Newfangled Potato Chips", however, there were objections from other snack producers to the brand using the term potato chip to describe Pringles. Once i have one, i just want to keep eating them. Wolf stated that the man in the team responsible for the can filling part of the process nearly went crazy due to being asked to find new ways to accommodate an ever increases production rate. Published on 8/14/2020 at 12:55 PM. I’ve enjoyed Pringles my whole life. They dump out some broken potato chips into their hand, only to find they are greasy, and end up wiping the grease on their clothing. A spokesman for P&G stated it had been paying the VAT proactively and owed no back taxes. It seems like there is always “yet another Pringles” flavor, we were crying making the list in the above section, it almost seems like some sort of cruel joke. The packaging itself convinces the buyer that the potato has a rich and strong taste.  Another theory suggests that two Procter advertising employees lived on Pringle Drive in Finneytown (north of Cincinnati, Ohio), and the name paired well with "potato chips". Learn more about Fritos or buy Fritos by checking here! ... Sarah Fuller makes history … Development on Pringles first started in 1956, before development was halted due to lack of ability to get the taste acceptable. Even after Pringles hit the market, the taste was often met with negative feedback and the product struggled to gain favor for a time. The packaging teamed with hydrogen gas, matches and oxygen creates a reaction to launch the rockets, which - apparently - makes "quite a loud bang". Pringles had many television commercials throughout the product's early years. Baur tried to get the flavor of Pringles to be suitable, but as the project dragged on, he was reassigned to other tasks as Pringles languished for years. Pringles is an American brand of stackable potato-based chips. When Proctor & Gamble need someone to create packaging for stacked potato chips back in 1966, chemist and food storage technician Fredric J. Baur dreamed up Pringles’ iconic tall cylinder. Mark Pringle's work was cited by Procter & Gamble in their own patent for improving the taste of dehydrated processed potatoes. The goal is that the Pringle ships in one piece. The packaging itself convinces the buyer that the potato has a rich and strong taste. The large amount of flavors may also help the snack appeal to more customer’s palettes, giving them an opportunity to find the perfect flavor just for them. In the mid-1960s another P&G researcher, Alexander Liepa of Montgomery, Ohio, restarted Baur's work and succeeded in improving the taste. This is a post about the history of the Pringles logo and its alignment with branding trends. Read more here! “Pringles” history “Pringles” were invented and first sold in 1968 in October in USA, but they were not sold across America till mid – 1970s. Now, it is trialling a new tube that can be disposed of via recycling bins in the home. No. The Pringles packaging challenge is a clever variation on the classic egg drop activity. By Caitlyn Hitt. Supercomputers were used to ensure that the chips were able to fit into the tubular aluminum-coated can and aerodynamic enough to keep the chips in place to avoid breakage. Although you have to wait longer for it, if you want a specific flavor of Pringles, buying online may be your best bet. Try as he might, he could not get Pringles to taste good enough. In fact in has been suggested that the crunch sound a chip makes has a strong correlation between how people view its desirability and their willingness to continue eating. Standard flavors in the US as of 2020[update] include original, salt and vinegar, sour cream and onion, cheddar cheese, ranch dressing, barbecue, hot and spicy, and loaded baked potato. Pringles tastes different from most chips, with the flavor being more limited to the surface of the crisp. They are different from normal chips, not just in size but also in it consistency and texture. But over time they grew on me. "), then you've got the fever for the flavor of a Pringle!". In addition to the normal sense of promotion for the snack, the sheer amount of flavors that Pringles has could be viewed as a marketing tactic itself, helping to draw in more market share for the brand. The smell is hard to describe, but it has a salt and cardboard-like essence to it. When i was a little boy i would not like them at first, and than learn to consume them in large quantities later on. Now I am always looking out to try new flavors and am very interested in getting my hands on whatever types i can find in stores. Later commercial marketing for Pringles focused more on depicting Pringles as fun, and showing off its various types and spin-off products. The original Pringles television commercials were written, produced and directed by Thomas Scott Cadden (composer of the original Mr. Clean jingle) in 1968, while working at Tatham-Laird and Kudner Advertising Agency in Chicago. P&G sold the brand to Kellogg's in 2012. Meaning and history. Customisation, uniqueness and reuse are the three keywords that inform Nutella packaging design.. , The can has been criticized for being difficult to recycle due to the multiple materials used in its construction. Pringles potato wafers are a global brand of chips available in several flavors to customers across many countries. Baur's children honored his request to bury him in one of the cans by placing part of his cremated remains in a Pringles container in his grave. The first step was to perfect the chips, then to create the sturdy, shippable container. The marketing shifted with the times in terms of its presentation to younger and older audiences alike, with hip-hop styled ads become more common to younger audiences, as well as more bright and colorful displays as the commercials aired. Pringles has over a 162 flavors, and not all of them can be found in stores, or just in any location. Information about snacks, food, and candy. The grilled shrimp chips are pink in color, while seaweed is colored green. Say the word "Pringles," and the image of a saddle-shape chip in a cylindrical container comes to mind. This unmistakable package was thinking to solve the broke potatoes chips problem, to offer to the customer, not just the best flavor also a product in the best conditions. The Pringles mascot is often depicted as a man’s face on the container for the product. PACKAGING OF CHIP-TYPE SNACK FOOD PRODUCTS. The distinctive Pringles packaging - with its metal base, plastic cap, metal tear-off lid, ... American football: Sarah Fuller makes history as first woman in a Power 5 game 6. , Occasionally, P&G has produced limited edition runs. Straight out of the box, literally, Pringles sets a strong tone with packaging reminiscent of a classic Stouffer's dinner, a cute touch for what aspires to be an entire meal of chips. Pringles took awhile for it to get to become a dominate snack, and one must note this brands perseverance in the hotly contested snack market. The deal was finalized on May 31, 2012, making the Kellogg company the second-largest snack company in the world at the time. Pringles can draw one’s eyes, the saddle shape and the long cylinder container they come inside of make you take notice of the snack. Still, with so many flavors of Pringles available, you can widen you available options by buying Pringles using the internet. Guidelines: Package must be no larger than 3” by 5”. Pringles is well known for its large, round, crisps and their cylindrical container. The history of Pringles began in 1956, when the company that first produced it, Procter & Gamble, sought to make a chip that did not break and could be uniform in flavor and shape. Gene Wolfe was in the engineering development division and was tasked with the cooking portion of the mass production equipment used to make Pringles. , Pringles is advertised in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia and Ireland with the slogan "Once you pop, the fun don't stop" along with the original slogan "Once you pop, you can't stop".. The idea behind the Pringles Challenge is simple. In 2012, they brought out seasonal flavors of "peppermint white chocolate", cinnamon sugar, and "pumpkin pie spice". Ingredients: DRIED POTATOES, VEGETABLE OIL (CORN, COTTONSEED, HIGH OLEIC SOYBEAN, AND/OR SUNFLOWER OIL), DEGERMINATED YELLOW CORN FLOUR, CORNSTARCH, RICE FLOUR, MALTODEXTRIN, MONO- AND DIGLYCERIDES, SALT, WHEAT STARCH. However, the container is bad for the environment. Charles Jarvie, vice president of Procter’s food division in the late 1970s, made a statement to the under-performance of Pringles “When I was there 30 years ago, it was dead”. Pringles offers snack chips, wheat and potato based, which are packaged in a distinctive cylindrical can. The saddle-like shape of Pringles is described as a hyperbolic paraboloid. Pringles are a crisp saddle shaped snack made from potatoes. Pringles come in a distinctive can coated with aluminum. The rest, as they say, is history. I found that Pringles promoted their product quite well. “Once you pop, the fun don't stop" and "Once you pop, you can't stop" began to become popular slogans for Pringles around the 1990’s, as the brand began to try to give off a more “fun” vibe for Pringles. The current container for the potato-based snack was condemned as a recycler’s nightmare. But to each their own. Snack History maintains its neutrality. , In 1956, Procter & Gamble assigned a task to chemist Fredric J. Baur (1918-2008): to develop a new kind of potato chips to address consumer complaints about broken, greasy, and stale chips, as well as air in the bags. Of course, others may think it’s genius to have all these flavors. Pringles has also been advertised during the Super Bowl, a pricey but often praiseworthy marketing tactic for any brand. According to the patent, the inventor of Pringles brand potato chips was reputed Alexander Liepa from Montgomery, Ohio.
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